Parachute : an invention used to slow objects

An invention is used as parachutes to slow the movement of objects. This is done in the atmosphere, creating a trail, or using the lift as with parachutes type wings. Parachutes are built with a fabric very light and very strong, which was at the beginning of the silk. Today it is most commonly nylon. Parachutes must slow vertical speed of an object at least 75% in order to be classified as such. Depending on the situation, parachutes are used with a variety of loads, including people, food, equipment, space capsules and also bombs.

Parachute retarders are used to assist the horizontal deceleration of a vehicle (a fixed-wing aircraft or vehicles of the type dragster), or stability (a tandem skydive freefall, or the Space Shuttle after landing). The word "parachute" comes from the French prefix paracete originally from the Greek, meaning to protect against and falling, the French word for "fall", it was originally invented as a hybrid word, which literally means "It protects against a fall" in 1785 by the French aeronaut François Blanchard (1753-1809).

 
The first traces of parachute

The first traces of parachute back to the Renaissance period. The older design with a parachute appears in an anonymous manuscript dating from 1470 Italian Renaissance, showing a man clutching a cross bar frame attached to a conical sail. As a safety measure, four straps are attached to the size of the man on a belt from the ends of the stems. The design is a marked improvement over another image, which depicts a man trying to break the force of his fall through two long streamers of cloth fastened to two bars which he grasps with his hands. Although the surface of the parachute seems to be too weak to offer effective resistance to the friction of the air and the wooden base frame is superfluous and potentially even dangerous, revolutionary character of this new concept is obvious.
parachute 1470
The first trace of parachute in 1470
The Leonardo da Vinci parachute

Only later, a more sophisticated parachute was sketched by Leonardo da Vinci in his "Codex Atlanticus" dated 1485. Here, the scale of the parachute is in a more favorable proportion to the weight of the parachutist. The veil of Leonardo's parachute was held open by a square wooden frame, which changes the shape of the conical pyramid shaped parachute. It is not known if the inventor was influenced by Italian design dating from 1470, but it may have had the idea through intensive oral communication artist-engineers of the time. The feasibility of the pyramidal conception of Leonardo da Vinci has been successfully tested in 2000 by a Briton Adrian Nicolas and again in 2008 by another skydiver. According to a historian of technology Lynn White, these conical and pyramidal designs, marks the origin of the parachute as we know it today.

 
1485 Leonardo da Vinci parachute
Leonardo da Vinci parachute
Parachute Fausto Veranzio
Fausto parachute Veranzio
Fausto parachute Veranzio

The Venetian inventor Fausto Veranzio (1551-1617) examined the sketches of Leonardo da Vinci's parachute, and began designing its own draft parachute. He kept the square frame, but replaced sail with a sail which proved to have a more effective deceleration. Now famous representation of a parachute that he dubbed "Homo Volans" appeared in his book on mechanics, "Machinae Novae" dating from 1595, alongside a number of other devices and technical concepts. In 1617, Veranzio designed his parachute design and then tested by performing a parachute jump from a tower in Venice. The event was documented thirty years later by John Wilkins, founder and secretary of the Royal Society in London.